Short history of the development of the DIVA
In Semi-structured Interview for ADHD in Adults, the predecessor of the current DIVA was developed by J.J.S. Kooij. This Semi-structured Interview for ADHD in Adults consisted of the three domains of ADHD symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, and addressed associated symptoms like sensation seeking and moodswings/anger outbursts, as well as comorbidity. Of every ADHD symptom domain, several examples for child- and adulthood were given in order to increase the recognition of symptoms for patients in daily life. After assessment of this Semi-structured Interview, in addition the DSM-IV criteria were checked in order to evaluate the number of symptoms in both child- and adulthood, as well as to determine the subtype of ADHD. Because adult patients with ADHD did not always recognise themselves in the formulation of the official DSM-IV criteria for ADHD, that were originally developed for children aged 4-16 years of age, they tended to underreport the final DSM-IV criteria, even after showing a convincing childhood onset and lifetime persistent pattern of ADHD symptoms and impairment during assessment with the Semi-structured Interview. For this reason, in 2007 we developed a structured diagnostic interview for ADHD in adults, in which the official DSM-IV criteria for ADHD are more closely tied to the examples.
The first versions of the DIVA were tested during a period of seven months in several hundred patients asking for a diagnostic assessment at Program Adult ADHD of PsyQ in , The Netherlands. The team at PsyQ commented on the text, and several adjustments were made. The final Dutch version was used from August 2007 and published online at www.kenniscentrumadhdbijvolwassenen.nl.
In 2009, several clinicians and researchers in asked for translations of the DIVA. All translations were made from the original Dutch version in order to prevent bias.
We are grateful for the support by Janssen for the first translations from Dutch into English, German, Swedish, Danish and Spanish. Translations into other languages were supported by mental health organisations or individual professionals. In order to have the proper wording and formulations used in clinical psychiatric practice in every country, experienced clinicians in those countries were asked to check and improve the first translation of the DIVA. Their comments and questions have been discussed with the authors of the instrument leading to adjustments. After verification of the back translations into Dutch, the final translations were authorised by the authors of the DIVA.
Comparing DIVA 2.0 and CAADID
DIVA 2.0 and the only other structured diagnostic instrument for ADHD in adults, CAADID, are based on the same official DSM-IV criteria for ADHD; therefore the structure of both interviews is similar, i.e. both assess symptoms of ADHD in childhood as well as adulthood. The examples of criteria tailored to ADHD in the DIVA are original, and were developed independently from the CAADID. DIVA further differs from CAADID in the addition of five areas of functioning in order to assess impairment due to the ADHD symptoms, with many examples given for both life phases. Another difference between both instruments is that DIVA 2.0 can be used free of charge, whereas for the use of CAADID one has to pay for every copy of the instrument.
In order to prevent any possible copyright issues, the editor of CAADID, MHS, was asked permission in advance for use and publication of DIVA in several languages, which was granted.
In addition, also the editors of the DSM-IV TR criteria in every language have been or will be asked permission to use the criteria for ADHD.